The Basics: What Is BPD?

Blue and purple text box which reads "The Basics: What is BPD?"

Content note: Unfortunately, (and as no surprise to people with BPD and their loved ones), this post discusses suicide, abuse and ableism. If any of those are hard for you, I promise that your mental wellbeing is more important than my website stats. Go and find some cat videos 💙


Welcome to The Basics, a series in which I outline a concept that comes up a lot in my work! This time, we’re looking at Borderline Personality Disorder (also known as Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder) – what it is, how it affects a person’s life, and what might help them. This article refers to “people with BPD” rather than “BPD sufferers” or similar, because I think the emphasis on suffering is unhelpful and because we are people. My personal opinions on whether it’s truly a personality disorder, versus a subtype of PTSD or a neurotype all of its own, are less than relevant here, but if significant new information comes to light along those lines you can expect an update to this post.

I was almost angry when I first learned about BPD, in that indignant way that you’re angry when you discover a resource that you had previously never heard of, sitting right in front of you. A while before I was formally diagnosed, I was already using BPD in my vocabulary and exploring how it might explain particular events scattered throughout my childhood. It explained so much, in fact, that I was formally diagnosed, and started writing a little more about having BPD.

BPD affects your mood, the way that you process and tolerate emotional distress, the way that you conduct your relationships and your self-perception. That’s a lot of things, so let’s start with the emotional bit. Sometimes I call my BPD “Big Emotions Disorder”, or “Tinkerbell Syndrome” in reference to the fairy in Peter Pan who can only feel one, extremely intense emotion at the time. These big emotions can cloud my judgement, especially when it comes to interpersonal interaction, and can escalate into an acute crisis very quickly. One problem with BPD is that our distress is so intense and specific that it can look very different to neurotypical distress, sometimes looking performative and thus not being believed – but we often are in that much distress, at least, and assuming otherwise is one of the reasons that people with BPD die by suicide at a rate of around 10%; for comparison, the Samaritans put the suicide rate of the general UK population at 10.0 per 100,000, or 0.01%

The relationship side of BPD is obviously impacted by the emotional side of it. BPD usually features an intense fear of abandonment and feelings of dependence on our loved ones, and our attachment styles can lead to clinginess and avoidance, sometimes both within the same person, same relationship and same hour. Relationships with a person who has BPD can often feature a lot of reassurance that you aren’t going to leave, as well as supporting the person when they have their characteristic Big Emotions. This can be taxing, especially when communication isn’t great, the person with BPD doesn’t know how to ask for reassurance (or even that that’s what they need), the person with BPD doesn’t take responsibility for their behaviour during times of Big Emotion, etc. Much like with the rest of the disorder, any stumbling block in the department of relationships is magnified so as to be almost insurmountable, so people with BPD report losing treasured relationships as well as ending up in terrible ones.

There is an argument to be made that entering terrible relationships, much like impulsive risky sex, drug use and dyeing one’s hair bright colours, is a self-sabotaging behaviour that we engage in because of our poor and typically unstable self-image. I personally think there is also an element of talented abusers finding and grooming people with BPD because we are likely to be grateful for the attention, eager to change and to please, and less supported by friends, family and professionals. Regardless, I’ve found in research and in my personal life that people with BPD are more likely to be abused in our interpersonal relationships than the general population, which is also more likely to do significant harm since we’re so sensitive to begin with.

(I also have to wonder whether dyeing one’s hair is definitely a response to unstable self-image, or whether it is sometimes done all or in part because of a desire to feel in control of one’s body and/or to make a statement. This is especially possible because there is an overlap between marginalised groups who dye their hair to be subversive, such as us gays, and people who are traumatised, what with trauma having known links to the development of BPD and all.)

Risk-taking behaviours are a real problem for people with BPD, and it can sometimes be hard to find the distinctions between deliberate risk-taking, altered perception of risk, and risks taken due to a feeling of passive suicidality. Personally, I’ve tried to obstruct a number of the risks I take, accidentally or on purpose, with things like a Blue Badge that stops me from wandering across car parks, and the deletion of Tinder from my phone. My experience with kink has given me, I think, a pretty good understanding of my ever-changing risk appetite and which risks I can take safely if I so need. I have to urge patience if there’s someone with BPD in your life taking risks that alarm you, especially because I know that sometimes I’m more likely to take risks if I have been specifically warned against them (there’s that avoidance coming through again). I also want you to trust that the adults in your life with BPD definitely are adults who can make adult decisions, and who will probably ask you if they need your help in managing their risk-taking. 

Personality disorders in general are heavily stigmatised, and this is especially true of what are sometimes called Cluster B personality disorders, like Antisocial Personality Disorder, Narcissistic Personality Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder. I like to refer to Cluster A as “Cluster Your Problem” and Cluster B “Cluster Other People’s Problem”, because that does seem to be where the demarcation lies. BPD is among the disorders most vilified and misunderstood by the public, but I am here to tell you that there’s no personality disorder that makes you an inherently bad (or good) person – it’s your behaviour that dictates that. 

By the way, I’m going to insist on calling it BPD, instead of EUPD, or Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder. There are a lot of reasons for this (including my inability to resist jokes about my European Union Personality Disorder), but my main one is that I think EUPD is misleading in two senses. The first is that it conveys that this is a primarily emotional disorder, which in turn conveys that it is perhaps less serious than other disorders, when in fact those emotions are a result of brain chemical activity just as in other mental health problems, and can be so intense as to lead to psychosis (delusions and hallucinations). The second is that it suggests a person with BPD is doomed to a life of emotional instability, which I don’t believe, having felt and witnessed the improvements that appropriate interventions can make. This doesn’t just mislead people who have BPD, rendering them desperately hopeless, but it also seems to mislead the public and professionals into thinking that severe emotional instability, and particularly distress, is so inevitable in people with BPD that it isn’t worth addressing in the way it would be addressed in anyone else.

This is not just a paranoid hunch I have; multiple articles point to a need for more research into BPD and how to treat its symptoms. Disorders aren’t chronically under-researched for no reason; funding goes to certain causes over others, which sucks because those other causes are usually also deserving of the funds. However, BPD isn’t as appealing or relatable to the public as disorders like depression, partly because of the very visible and vocal ways it presents. I also have to wonder whether it would get more research funding if it weren’t for the fact that “women present to services more often than men” (their cissexist language, not mine) and the related fact that we live in a patriarchal hellscape. Nonetheless, we don’t need research to approach people with BPD with the empathy and dignity that we deserve. It’s beyond time to stop treating BPD as Tantrum Disorder and start treating it like the complex constellation of traits and symptoms that it is – a disorder that can and does kill people. This dismissive attitude kills people.

In summary:

  • BPD is a disorder which acutely affects your relationships, your emotional state, your risk-taking behaviours and various aspects of your functioning
  • We are at high risk of harming ourselves but we are not fundamentally evil people bent on harming others
  • BPD is dismissed by professionals at an alarming rate, but the distress we’re communicating is legitimate
  • Helping people with BPD is the same as helping any other individual, but it will sincerely help us to elevate our voices and educate the public and professionals about the reality, and seriousness, of the condition
  • We need a lot more research on BPD, which you can also help to campaign for
  • If you have BPD and this post exhausted you emotionally, you’re not on your own. And if it helps at all, here is a photo of my cat:

My black-and-white cat on a blue-and-purple background, lying on his back with his legs spread wide. He learned this from me.

 

March Onwards

A scarred arm with two plasters on it, one normal shaped and one shaped like a heart

CN: This post refers in detail to suicidal ideation and planning, eating disorders (no numbers, detail about purging), self-harm, psychosis, anxiety and depression. In short, this is a tough one – please give it a miss if you need to 💖


I remember the past six months in fragments. An assortment of fragments, big and small, painful and beautiful, some much sharper than others.

The fragment in which we suddenly realised that I wasn’t safe, and started making plans and group chats to get me to somewhere I could be supervised. It was white-hot with guilt and grief and I couldn’t always block out the pain.

Several fragments of sobbing. Of clawing at my face. Of feeling, knowing that my veins ran with molasses-y evil, of being unable to escape the tangibility of it beneath my skin. Of dizzyingly overwhelming shopping trips. Of semi-coherent phone calls to my mother.

I remember a sliver of my mother helping. I hold onto slivers like these, or like of singing, of passing joints around a fire, of face masks and desserts. I hold onto them so tightly that some of them cut my palm.

The bigger fragments are often worse. In one, I went to the hospital, because I was going to kill myself if I didn’t. They wouldn’t let my girlfriend into the waiting room with me, and I had to walk an endless corridor to find it. There were sharps bins I could have stolen. There were cleaning chemicals on a trolley I could have drunk. I could have simply turned and run.

I forced myself through that corridor like I used to force myself through mealtimes. I remember the feeling of clenching my fists and chipping away at a goal I desperately wanted not to reach: one more mouthful. One more mouthful. One more footstep. One more.

I waited. Nobody came to help. I was there for twenty minutes, I’m told, and I know that I was at war with myself for every moment, punching and scratching and picking and crying and still all too aware that I could just run. I could just run.

They sent me down the hill to the psychiatric hospital. That one let my girlfriend wait with me. This is the smooth edge of the fragment, where we played Hangman and gossiped and loved each other for hours. 

Then they took me into a little room and told me they couldn’t help me.

Here is the sharp edge. I couldn’t hear anything after that. I asked for my girlfriend. She asked if there was anything they could do for me to make the past five hours worth the wait.

They could not.

I don’t remember leaving that room, but I remember leaving the building. I remember my vision fading at the edges, and all I could see was the brick wall up ahead. I recruited the wall in the fight against me, ramming my fists and forehead into it. I drew the attention of some nurses, who came out to check I was alright – but they couldn’t help me either.

Then there are the fragments in bathrooms. Running a razorblade across my cheek, but without enough courage to draw the evil out. Crying in front of a toilet, unable to cope with an ordinary stomach bug, my trousers on the floor beside me. Squishing myself in front of the mirror in quiet, poisonous horror. Stroking the back of my throat with my fingers and regurgitating McDonald’s. That last fragment should be put away safely, somewhere I can’t find it, because all I felt afterwards was a bliss that I still mourn.

Another trip to the hospital – this one fuzzier. My boyfriend at the time watching with wide, terrified eyes as I screamed down the phone to a crisis worker, trying to make her understand why I needed to die. The mounting, sickening dread in the taxi to the hospital. The glimmer of hope when they started to talk about an admission. Explaining my plan to find somewhere wooded and pretty, get very drunk and start slicing myself until I die and my body nourishes the ground. 

Being told, again, that they couldn’t help me.

The trick to living through that twice is lost to my foggy memory. I know we went home and I smoked a lot of weed. I know that I lived. I know that the people around me kept me safe both by loving me fiercely and by hiding all their medications, house keys and sharp objects.

I know that I kept trying to put one foot in front of the other. One more footstep. One more.

There are so many other fragments that I struggle to fit together in my mess of a mind. That one antipsychotic that made me lactate for two weeks. Completing and handing in some coursework, somehow. A lot of Animal Crossing. A lot of naps.

A lot of footsteps. One more footstep, and then another.

One more.

Where I’ve Been

A selfie of Morgan, resting xir face on xir hand and looking into the camera with a neutral, if exasperated, expression. Morgan is a white nonbinary person with a blueish fringe and multiple piercings, the uniform of mental illness

Content warning: This post alludes to the general misery of mental illness, as well as suicidal ideation and self-harm. Give it a miss if you need to – you matter more than my analytics! 


So, I accidentally became a company director.

When I say this, people ask, “How do you accidentally become a company director?” Their confusion is understandable, but honestly, I’ve been in a haze of mental illness for such a long time that most of what I do feels accidental. Like, oh, look at that, I wrote a press release. Oops, I tripped and fell and submitted a PhD funding application. Oh, fuck, it looks like I’ve submitted coursework for my MA. 

But also: oh, fuck, I accidentally didn’t speak to my girlfriend for literal weeks. Oh, look at that, I forgot to eat today. Oops, I don’t have enough of my meds to get me through the weekend. And, of course, ah, shit, I forgot to be a sex blogger for a month or two. 

This post is two things. It’s an explanation as to why I’ve been away from my blog for a hot minute, and a celebration of all the insane things I’ve been up to during said hot minute.

We’ll start with the company director thing. My mum is my co-director, and initially, I was sort of a placeholder company director, a name to write on the paperwork until we got someone else on board. But, you know, it’s a community interest company, and it’s one I believe in very strongly. So, slowly and accidentally, I’ve started actually doing things as a company director. I made us Ko-Fi and Patreon pages. I put together the Facebook fundraiser for this weekend, when my mum will be shaving her head. I wrote a press release and contacted local news outlets to ask where I should send it. You know, real casual-like. 

Christmas makes my brain very weird, so I didn’t celebrate it. I hung wallpaper instead, mostly on my own. My mum acted as a second pair of hands on occasion, but I get weird when I’m doing DIY, so upon my request she mostly entertained the dog and stayed well out of my way. This was also the case when I replaced the toilet seat after losing my battle with the original broken one. And when I unblocked the outdoor drain. And when I rearranged the furniture.

I realised halfway through this whole process that I was using it as self-harm, what with my dodgy joints and all, but at that point it felt too late to stop. I carried on twisting my hips, pulling my ribs out and climbing ladders in my flip-flops, and only noticed bruises and scrapes hours or days after they’d occurred. The haze of mental illness hung heavy around me, so my memories of that whole process are blurred.

I did all of this stuff with deadlines looming in the distance. Four deadlines, to be precise, which required me to write a cumulative total of 11,000 words. The problem was, it was enough of a challenge to be in my mum’s house, where a lot of my trauma happened, without hurting myself any more than I already was. And my focus can never stay on anything at my mum’s house, because I’m waiting for the next Traumatic Thing to happen. So I didn’t touch my coursework.

And then I did, all at once. On Sunday/Monday, I stayed up for 37 hours (with a 90 minute nap in the middle) to write the 8,000-odd words I still had left to write. I had an energy drink at 11pm. I had a shower at 5am. I picked at the recent self-harm wounds on my arms and I cried about statistics. But I submitted the bastards, all four of them, and we’ll see soon enough whether they were actually coherent enough for me to secure a pass. 

I still went to my Monday afternoon seminar, too. I could have skived, what with the exhaustion and the mental illness and it being the first week of term and all, but it was the module I’m the most excited about, taught by an academic I really want to impress. So I turned up, and I babbled near-incomprehensibly about gender and bees, and then I stumbled back to my Daddy’s house. And I accidentally reminded myself why I liked to pull all-nighters all the time in high school: because exhaustion numbs everything, like a nip of booze does, and makes the world easier to cope with, and because I got so much done overnight. I would like to forget this information again, because I used to spend a lot of my time drunk on exhaustion, and I’m sure it wasn’t good for me. 

All of this is to say that I’ve been in a blurry, often-dark place lately. I have had moments of frantically Googling “how to drown yourself”, and moments of dizzying triumph and relief. I can barely recall any of it. I feel like it goes without saying that I haven’t been in a sex-blogging mindset very much as of late, because I’ve been alternating between being busy and foggy and in crisis. 

However! I have had some sex-related triumphs, among all the grown-up uni- and business- and wallpaper-related triumphs. This weekend, I’ll hopefully be posting about my slowly-improving relationship with masturbation, and how that fits in with my sex-related intention-setting for 2020. I’m only a month late, and honestly, with how chaotic things have been, that feels like a triumph in its own right.

Thank you all for your patience with me while I’ve been Going Through It™. I hope that the content I put out in 2020 makes that patience worth it.